The PhDs are also trained to collaborate and exchange knowledge in joint, real-life assignments in living labs. These labs, notably in Rome, and Newcastle, offer test cases for comparative cross-European analyses of the HERILAND skills set and for evaluation of best practices and critical success-factors in using these skills. In these labs, the HERILAND key themes are leading in the selection of assignments. The assignments are commissioned by HERILAND partners (e.g. municipalitiesor heritage boards).